Ankle specialist in Mumbai

The foot and ankle are a complicated joint that is involved in movement and providing balance and stability to our body. In addition to the 33 joints and 26 bones, the foot and ankle joint comprise several ligaments, muscles, and tendons.

Following is an explanation of each of these consisting units explained by our foot and ankle specialist in Mumbai.

Bones of the Ankle

The main role of the ankle joint is to connect the leg with the foot and comprises three bones, namely the tibia, fibula, and talus. The tibia (shinbone) and fibula (calf bone) are bones of the lower leg that fuse with the talus, the ankle bone, thereby making the up and down movement of the foot possible.

There are three bony bumps present at the end of the tibia and fibula that participate in forming the ankle joint. These are as follows:

  • Medial malleolus :This bony bump is formed by the tibia and is found on the inner side of the ankle.
  • Posterior malleolus : As suggested by the name, it is found at the back of the ankle. It is also formed by the tibia.
  • Lateral malleolus: It is formed by the fibula and is present on the outer side of the ankle.

Bones of the Feet

Though the foot acts as a single functional unit, it can be divided into three different parts, the hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot.

Hindfoot :The hindfoot makes up the ankle and heel and comprises the talus bone and calcaneus or heel bone. The heel bone is the biggest in the foot.

Midfoot : The midfoot is the middle region of the foot that connects the hindfoot to the forefoot. It comprises three different bones: a cuboid bone, a navicular bone, and three cuneiform bones. The navicular bone is present in front of the heel bone, and the cuneiform and cuboid bones are arranged before the navicular bone. These bones are connected together to five metatarsal bones of the forefoot, which form the foot's arch and act as shock absorbers when we walk or run.

Forefoot :Forefoot is also comprised of the toes, also known as digits. The digits are formed by phalanges, three in each toe, except the big toe, which has only two phalanges. In addition, the big toe has two additional tiny round sesamoid bones in the ball of the foot, which helps in the upward and downward movement of the toe.

Ankle and Foot Joint

As already mentioned, there are 33 joints in the ankle and foot. The most important ones are as follows:

  • Hinge joints:Hinge joints allow flexion (bending) and extension.
  • Gliding joints:These are found in the hindfoot, which allows gliding movements.
  • Condyloid joints:These are found in the forefoot and toes, which allow flexion (bending) and extension, and the sideward movements, abduction, and adduction.

The joints of the foot and ankle give support and stability to the body's weight, thereby allowing walking, running, and adapting to uneven ground.

Furthermore, the joint surface of all ankle and foot bones are lined with articular cartilage lines. Articular cartilage is a flexible, thin, tough, and slippery surface that allows easy articulation, increased weight distribution, and shock absorption. The cartilage is lubricated by synovial fluid, which makes the smooth movement of the bones possible.

Soft Tissues of the Ankle and Foot

There are various soft tissues that are responsible for holding our feet and ankle bones in place. Some of them are explained below:

Cartilage It is the flexible, shiny, smooth tissue on the ends of bones and combines to form a joint. Cartilage provides cushioning between the bones and makes smooth movement possible.

Ligaments Ligaments are a group of muscular tissues that connect bones to other bones and keep them in place, thereby making the joints stable. The largest ligament in the foot is the plantar fascia, which originates from the heel bone and extends across the forefoot. It travels along the bottom surface of the foot and maintains a curve shape of the foot. Moreover, the plantar fascia ligament stretches and contracts to provide balance and strength to the foot. In addition, lateral ligaments on the outside of the foot and medial ligaments on the inside provide support and stability and permit the up and down movement of the foot.

Any injury to these ligaments can result in joint instability. Our ankle specialist in Mumbai frequently performs ankle joint repair and replacement surgeries to treat such complex ligament injuries.


There are 20 muscles that make up the foot. The most important muscles are:

  • Anterior tibial muscle: It allows up and down movement of the foot.
  • Posterior tibial muscle: This muscle supports the curve.
  • Peroneal tibial muscle : It regulates the movement on the outer side of the ankle.
  • Extensors: Extensors allows the ankle to lift the toes while stepping forward.
  • Flexors: Flexors provide stability to the toes against the floor.

In addition to these muscles, smaller muscles are also present in the foot to help the toes curl and lift.


Tendons are the groups of connective tissue fibers that connect muscles to bones. According to our ankle specialist in Mumbai, the Achilles is the biggest and strongest tendon in the foot that is present at the posterior of the lower leg on the sides of the heel bone. Some other tendons include peroneal and anterior and posterior tibialis.

Foot Pain

Foot pain occurs from distress induced by certain factors in the foot. It is a common problem experienced by young athletes involved in various activities such as running and jumping.

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Foot & Ankle Arthritis

Arthritis is inflammation resulting from the degeneration of cartilage in the joint causing joint pain, swelling, and stiffness resulting in restricted movements.

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Achilles Tendon Rupture

The Achilles tendon is a strong, fibrous cord present behind the ankle that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone.

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Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis refers to inflammation of the plantar fascia, a thick band of tissue that is present at the bottom of the foot.

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Ankle Sprain

A sprain is the stretching or tearing of ligaments, which connect adjacent bones and provide stability to a joint.

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Ankle Instability

Ankle instability is a chronic condition characterised by a recurrent slipping of the outer side of the ankle. It usually results from repeated ankle sprains.

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Ankle Ligament Injury

Ankle instability is a chronic condition characterised by a recurrent slipping of the outer side of the ankle. It usually results from repeated ankle sprains.

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Ankle Fractures

The ankle joint is composed of three bones: the tibia, fibula and talus, which are articulated together.

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Foot & Ankle Trauma

The foot and ankle in the human body work together to provide balance, stability, movement and propulsion.

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A bunion is a bony protuberance that appears on the outer surface of the big toe when it angles toward the adjacent toe.

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A hammertoe is a deformity of a lesser toe (second through fifth toes), where the toe is bent upward at the toe’s middle joint, resembling a hammer.

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Diabetic Foot Conditions

Diabetes is a chronic condition that is characterised by high blood glucose (sugar) levels. Diabetic patients are at a high risk for developing chronic wounds, especially in the feet.

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Charcot Neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy is a condition of nerve damage, usually in the lower extremities. It is a complication of uncontrolled diabetes, which results in diminished sensation, and decreased ability to feel pain and temperature in your feet.

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Flatfoot, also known as “fallen arches” or Pes planus, is a deformity in children’s feet in which the arch that runs lengthwise along the sole of the foot has collapsed to the ground or not formed at all.

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Limb Deformities

Limb deformities can be congenital (present at birth) or develop at a later stage because of fracture, infection, arthritis or tumour.

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Ankle Arthroscopy

Ankle arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which an arthroscope, a small, soft, flexible tube with a light and video camera at the end, is inserted into the ankle joint to evaluate and treat a variety of conditions.

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Achilles Tendon Repair

Tendons are the soft tissues connecting muscle to bone. The Achilles tendon is the longest tendon in the body and is present behind the ankle, joining the calf muscles with the heel bone.

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Ankle Tenotomy

Ankle tenotomy is a surgical procedure to lengthen the Achilles tendon enabling the ankle to flex upward and allowing the heel to be placed flat on the floor.

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Ankle Joint Replacement

The ankle joint connects the leg with the foot and provides free movement to the foot. It is formed by connecting the bones of the lower leg, tibia and fibula, with the talus, or ankle bone.

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Ankle Ligament Reconstruction

A sprain is the stretching or tearing of a ligament. Ligaments connect adjacent bones in a joint and provide stability to the joint.

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Bunion Surgery or Bunionectomy

A bunion, also known as hallux valgus, is bony prominence at the base of the big toe, which often results in pain, redness and rubbing in footwear.

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Foot Reconstruction

Foot reconstruction is a surgery performed to correct the structures of the foot and restore the natural functionality of the foot that has been lost due to injury or illness.

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Flatfoot Reconstruction

Foot reconstruction is a surgery performed to correct the structures of the foot and restore the natural functionality of the foot that has been lost due to injury or illness.

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Subtalar Arthrodesis

Subtalar arthrodesis is the surgical fusion of bones that form the subtalar joint. The subtalar joint is a complex joint located below the ankle joint and is formed by the union of the heel (calcaneus) and the talus (ankle) bone.

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Limb Lengthening

Limb lengthening is a reconstructive procedure where the deformed bone is straightened, or missing bone is replaced.

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Lower Limb Trauma

Lower limb trauma refers to the injuries of the foot and ankle that most commonly occur as a result of accidents or sports injuries. They can include sprains, strains, fractures and dislocations.

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Treatment of Foot and Ankle Sports Injuries

Injuries during sports are common. They can result from accidents, inadequate training, improper use of protective devices, or insufficient stretching or warm-up exercises.

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