Wrist Surgeon in Mumbai

The human hand comprises fingers, palm, wrist, arm, and joints consisting of 27 bones, 27 joints, 34 muscles, more than 100 ligaments and tendons that bind the bones and joints, blood vessels, and nerves. Hands enable us to perform various day-to-day activities, for example- holding, driving, writing, cooking, etc.

Some diseases, infection, dislocation, or other ailments of hands may require targeted solutions such as rejoining joints, ailing infection, or amputation in some cases. But, according to our wrist surgeon in Mumbai, understanding its anatomy and learning about hand diseases and conditions can help in better treatment.


The wrist comprises eight carpal bones(the main bone forms the wrist and connects hands to the forearm). This wrist joint is connected to two major bones that form the palm: radius and ulna. They are connected to small bones that are further connected to 5 metacarpal bones forming the palm. Each metacarpal bone connects five fingers and five MCP joints or knuckles, respectively. So, altogether, the palm is a network of bones, joints, muscles, and ligaments that help them remain firm and agile to enable corporal movement.

Soft tissues

The soft tissues or articular cartilages are smooth connective tissues that act as shock absorbers, moisturize each palm bone joint, and protect all 27 joints from damage or inflammation. They also enable smooth muscle, bone, or bone joint movements. Apart from this, these soft connective tissues help connect ligaments( tough rope-like tissues)to hand bones for smooth and strong adhesion and stabilize joints.

Each finger joint has two collateral ligaments that prevent abnormal sideways curvature in bones. The soft tissue rupture due to an accident or degeneration is felt with sharp pain, inflammation, and deformity of fingers, requiring consultation from a wrist surgeon in Mumbai.


There are about 600 muscles in the human body. Muscles contract and relax to perform a range of functions, for example, pumping blood, supporting the movement lifting heavy weights, or giving birth. Muscles are fibrous tissues that provide it shape and enable hand movements. There are two types of muscles involved in hand movement that is intrinsic and extrinsic. The intrinsic muscles are directly associated with palm and wrist movements, whereas extrinsic muscles of arms and forearms support the fist by redistributing pressure to perform activities.


Tendons are soft fibrous tissues that connect muscles to bones. When muscles contract, the tendons pull bones to move fingers.

The palm has eight different types of bones with respective joints. And the different types of tendons help them flex accordingly. For example, tendons on the palm called flexor tendons enable the palm and fingers to bend for forming a clenched fist. In contrast, tendons in fingers are flexible to ease the finger movement and provide both strength and flexibility to fingers muscles while moving.


Bursae are small fluid-filled sacs, part of connective tissues. They are present at the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints. Bursae decrease friction in between bone-muscle conjunction, protect joints, and enable smooth gliding movements. They contain synovial cells一special cells that secrete a lubricating fluid.


There are three types of nerves: motor nerves, sensory nerves, and autonomic nerves. The nerves carry electrical impulses from organ to brain and from brain-to-body to responding organs. When an activity is done consciously, for example, writing or throwing a football, the brain signals the motor nerves to act accordingly.

Typically, the hand nerves carry electrical impulses from the brain to muscles, allowing forearm and wrist muscles to contract or relax to maneuver movements. In addition, the sensory nerves are responsible for creating sensations of touch, pain, and temperature. And the autonomous nerves are involved in performing reflex actions or involuntary muscle movement.

The wrist comprises three types of nerves present in the hands- the ulnar nerve, the radial nerve, and the median nerve, present by corresponding types of palm bones. However, all three nerves originate at the shoulder, traveling down the arms and terminating in the hand's forefingers.

Ulnar Nerve: The ulnar nerve surpasses Guyon’s canal across the wrist and branches further in the palm to provide detailed sensations from the little finger up to half of the ring finger.

Median Nerve: The median nerve passes across the wrist through a tunnel called the carpal tunnel. The median nerves cause sensation to, thumb, index finger, middle finger, half of the ring finger, and palm.

Radial Nerve: The radial nerve extends from the thumb side of the forearm via radial bone, providing sensation to the back of hands 一from the thumb to the middle finger.

Blood Vessels

Blood vessels are the network of blood flow pathway comprising arteries and veins, that supplies blood to different body parts. Likewise, a closely-knit network of blood vessels transverse the hands also.

The ulnar and radial arteries supply blood to the front part of the hand, fingers, and thumb. However, the blood vessels are thoroughly distributed in the hands up to the fingertips which is the periphery of the entire system.

The radial artery is the longest in hand, traveling from thumb to wrist. Pulse is measured at the radial artery.

How Do Wrist Joints Move?

The wrist comprises an ellipsoidal (condyloid) synovial joint, bursae, to ease joint movements along the two major axes on the wrist joint, palm, and hand. The muscles, tendons, and ligaments that cover adjacent wrist bones contact or relax to perform movements. The wrist joint is a modified ball-socket joint capable of performing the latitudinal and longitudinal motion, which includes:

Flexion - When the palm along the forearm axis is bent and moved towards the forearm in a downward direction, that extension movement is called flexion. It involves flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi radialis.

Extension - When the palm is moved upwards in the opposite direction to flexion move, it is called extension motion. It involves extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis, and extensor carpi ulnaris.

Adduction - When the palm is bent on the opposite side of the thumb laterally, then it is adduction. The adduction is ular deviation

Abduction -When the lateral palm motion is performed in the thumb's direction, it is called abduction.

Hand Pain

Hand pain is characterised by distress in the joints and tissues of the hand or fingers. Hand pain can be depicted as pulsating, aching, increased warmth, prickling, irritation and inflexibility.

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Wrist Pain

The wrist is a commonly injured joint in the body. Problems include sprains and strains as well as fractures which can occur with lifting and carrying heavy objects, while operating machinery, bracing against a fall, or from sports-related injuries.

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Arthritis of the Hand and Wrist

Arthritis is an inflammatory condition of the joints. There are several types of arthritis and the most common type is osteoarthritis or wear-and-tear arthritis.

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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common, painful, progressive condition that is caused by compression of the median nerve at the wrist area.

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Wrist Sprain

Injuries caused due to stretching or tearing of the ligaments in the wrist are called wrist sprains. These injuries are usually caused by a fall during daily activities or sports activities.

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Gamekeeper’s Thumb

Gamekeeper's thumb, also known as skier's thumb, is a tear of the ulnar collateral ligament, a band of tissue that supports the joint at the base of the thumb.

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Trigger Finger

The ability to bend the fingers is governed by supportive tendons that connect muscles to the bones of the fingers. The tendons run along the length of the bone and are kept in place at intervals by tunnels of ligaments called pulleys.

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De Quervain’s Tendinosis

The muscles and bones of the hand are connected by thick flexible tissue called tendons. Tendons are covered by a thin soft sheath of tissue known as synovium.

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Dupuytren’s Contracture

Dupuytren’s Contracture is a hand condition where thickening of the underlying fibrous tissues of the palm causes the fingers to bend inward.

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Fractures of the Hand and Fingers

The hand is one of the most flexible and useful parts of our body. Because of overuse in various activities, the hands are more prone to injuries, such as sprains and strains, fractures and dislocations, lacerations...

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Wrist Fracture

The wrist is comprised of two bones in the forearm, the radius and ulna, and eight tiny carpal bones in the palm. The bones meet to form multiple large and small joints.

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Scaphoid Fracture

The scaphoid bone is a small, boat-shaped bone in the wrist, which, along with 7 other bones, forms the wrist joint. It is present on the thumb side of the wrist causing it to be at a high risk for fractures.

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Ganglion Cyst

Ganglion cysts are swellings that most commonly develop along the tendons or joints of wrists or hands. They can be found either at the top of the wrist, palm side of the wrist, end joint of a finger or at the base of a finger.

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Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common, painful, progressive condition that is caused by compression of the median nerve at the wrist area.

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Finger Joint Fusion

Finger joint fusion is a surgical procedure to remove the damaged bony ends of a finger joint followed by insertion of a prosthesis to fuse the bones back together. Finger joint fusion is performed to relieve arthritis pain in the fingers.

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Occupational Hand Therapy

Hand therapy is a rehabilitation technique recommended to improve the strength and restore functional activity of hands in patients with upper extremity injuries. Hand therapy also helps in preventing injury.

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Total Wrist Arthrodesis

Arthrodesis is the surgical immobilisation of a joint by the fusion of the adjacent bones.

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Wrist Arthroscopy

Your wrist is a complex joint made up of eight small bones called carpal bones. These bones are supported by connecting ligaments.

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Wrist Joint Replacement

Wrist joint replacement surgery, also referred to as total wrist arthroplasty, involves replacement of a severe arthritic wrist joint with an artificial joint made of metal and plastic components.

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Wrist Ligament Reconstruction

The human wrist is made up of small bones joined together by a band of tough fibrous tissue known as ligaments.

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Sports Injury Management of Hand, Wrist and Elbow

Sports injuries are the injuries that most commonly occur during sports and exercises. These injuries may result from accidents, poor training practices...

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