Knee Specialist in Mumbai

The human knee is a complex junction of bones, tendons, ligaments, and muscles that work together to enable multi-directional mobility and provide stability. It is the most used and stressed joint, which is used even when we are seated or sleeping to move around.

A well-functioning knee enables our mobility and ability to participate in various activities. However, according to our knee specialist in Mumbai, knee joint disorders are the most prevalent joint problems today. Understanding the knee’s anatomy enhances your ability to discuss and choose the right treatment procedure for knee problems with your doctor.

Bones of the Knee

The knee is a hinge joint made up of two bones, the thighbone (femur) and the shinbone (tibia). There are two round knobs at the end of the femur called femoral condyles which articulate with the flat surface of the tibia called the tibial plateau. The tibia plateau on the inside of the leg is called the medial tibial plateau, and on the outside of the leg it is called the lateral tibial plateau.

The femur sits on top of the tibia, hinged by a complex band of two major muscles, the quadriceps, and the hamstrings. They are primarily responsible for holding the two bones together.

The fibula is another bone of the lower leg connected parallel to the tibia. This joint has very little movement and is not considered a part of the main joint, as suggested by our knee replacement surgeon In Mumbai.

Articular Cartilage and Menisci of the Knee

To further reduce friction between the articulating surfaces of the bones, the knee joint is lined by a synovial membrane which produces a thick clear fluid called synovial fluid. This fluid lubricates and nourishes the cartilage and bones inside the joint capsule.

What makes the knee joints unique are the menisci cartilage bands. Menisci are C-shaped structures that are strategically positioned between the femur and tibia surfaces such that the weight of the upper body is distributed across the tibial plateaus and also absorbs shock produced during walking, running, and jumping.

Ligaments & Tendons of the Knee

Finally, the joint is held together by a network of ligaments and tendons present around and in-between the bones. The primary ligament bands are the collateral ligaments and the cruciate ligaments that stabilize the joint’s movements, while the quadriceps tendons, patella tendons, and hamstring tendons adhere the muscles to the bones.

Collateral ligaments: these bands extend along the sides of the knee with the medial collateral ligament (MCL) on the inner side and the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) on the outside. They prevent the knee’s side-to-side motion.

Cruciate ligaments: these bands pass through the knee joint and control the back-and-forth motion of the knee. The anterior cruciate ligament or ACL holds the tibia in place, and the posterior cruciate ligament or PCL prevents it from moving backward.

Tendons are essentially bonding soft tissues that adhere to the muscles and bones to offer sturdiness to the joint.

In case of ligament and tendon injuries, you will have to see a specialist knee surgeon in Mumbai to manually repair the broken soft tissue bands.

Muscles of the Knee

There are two major muscles over the knee joint bones that also hold the joint together. The quadricep muscle bands forming the frontal thighs contract to allow extension of the leg at the knee joint, while the hamstrings muscle bands at the back of the thigh enable bending of the leg.

Knee Pain

The knee is one of the largest joints in the body, formed by the lower end of the femur, upper end of the tibia and the patella or kneecap.

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Knee Arthritis

Arthritis is a general term covering numerous conditions where the joint surface or cartilage wears out. The joint surface is covered by a smooth articular surface that allows pain-free movement in the joint.

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Meniscal Tears

Meniscus tear is the commonest knee injury in athletes, especially those involved in contact sports. A sudden bend or twist in your knee causes the meniscus to tear.

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Ligament Injuries

Ligaments are tough bands of tissue that connect one bone to another bone. The ligaments of the knee function to stabilise the knee joint.

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Multiligament Knee Injuries

The knee is one of the largest and strongest joints in the human body. Vital for multi-directional movement, the knee connects the thigh-bone (the femur) to the leg bone (the tibia).

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Chondromalacia Patellae

In the knee joint, the kneecap (patella) moves over the front part of thigh bone (femur) and allows bending of the knee and straightening of the leg.

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Patellofemoral Instability

Lateral patellar instability is almost always due to a patellar (kneecap) dislocation. In this circumstance, an athlete or patient will experience their kneecap slipping out of the lateral (outside) aspect of their knee.

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Chondral (Articular Cartilage Defects)

Articular or hyaline cartilage is the tissue lining the surface of the two bones in the knee joint. Cartilage helps the bones move smoothly against each other and can withstand the weight of the body during activities such as running and jumping.

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ACL Reconstruction

The anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, is the most important ligament of the knee to prevent the knee from sliding forward or rotating anterolaterally.

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Knee Arthroscopy

Knee Arthroscopy is a common surgical procedure performed using an arthroscope, a viewing instrument, to diagnose or treat a knee problem. It is a relatively safe procedure and most of the patients are discharged from the hospital on the same day of surgery.

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PCL Reconstruction

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), one of four major ligaments of the knee is situated at the back of the knee. It connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia).

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MCL Reconstruction

Medial collateral ligament (MCL) is one of four major ligaments of the knee that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone) and is present on the inside of the knee joint.

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Multiligament Knee Reconstruction

Multiligament knee reconstruction is a surgical procedure to repair or replace two or more damaged ligaments of the knee joint. The surgery can be performed using minimally invasive techniques.

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Meniscal Surgery

A meniscus tear is the commonest knee injury in athletes, especially those involved in contact sports. A sudden bend or twist in your knee can cause the meniscus to tear.

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High Tibial Osteotomy

High tibial osteotomy is a surgical procedure performed to relieve pressure on the damaged site of an arthritic knee joint.

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